Posts Tagged ‘Internet investigations’

New Book Investigating Internet Crimes Released

Saturday, February 15th, 2014

Investigating Internet Crimes

Investigating Internet Crimes:
An Introduction to Solving Crimes in Cyberspace

You can find the new book by Todd G. Shipley and Art Bowker on Amazon books and you can  also follow the authors on their blog. What’s being said about the book:

Neal Ysart, Director First August Ltd, likes Investigating Internet Crime by Shipley and Bowker

“At last….. Informed, pragmatic guidance from two highly experienced professionals who  have actually spent time on the front line, not just the classroom.  This book is relevant for  practitioners working in both law enforcement and within business – every aspiring cyber  investigator should have a copy.” Neal Ysart, Director First August Ltd, Information and  Corporate Risk Services

Google Analytics Update

Wednesday, August 29th, 2012

Last year I wrote about taking apart a MySpace cookie.  Included in that posting was some discussion on Google analytics tools found within the cookie.  It was interesting and I got some good feedback about the blog entry.  I was contacted by Jim Meyer of the DoD Cyber Crime Center about some further research they had done on the Google analytics within cookies and a presentation they were preparing at the time for the 2012 DoD Cybercrime conference (if you saw the presentation at DoD let me know how it went).

They were able to determine more information about the specific pieces of the Google analytics cookie placed on a user’s computer when they go to a webpage that contains Google Analytics.

The Google Analytics Cookie collects stores and reports certain information about a user’s contact with a webpage that has the embedded Google analytics java code. This includes:

  • Data that can determine if a user is a new or returning user
  • When that user last visited the website
  • How long the user stayed on the website
  • How often the user comes to the site, and
  • Whether the user came directly to the website,
    •  Whether the user was referred to the site via another link
    • Or, whether the user located the site through the use of keywords.

Jim Meyer and his team used Googles open source code page to help define several pieces of the code and what exactly it was doing when downloaded. Here is some of what they were able to determine (The examples are the ones I used in my last posting with a little more explanation about what everything means. I explained how I translated the dates and times in my last posting). For a complete review of their findings contact Jim at the DoD Cyber Crime Center.  


Cookie:            __utma


__utma This records information about the site visited and is updated each time you visit the site.
102911388 This is a hash of the domain you are coming from
576917061 This is a randomly generated number from the Google cookie server
1287093264 This is the actual time of the first visit to the server
576917061.1287093264 These two together make up the unique ID for Google track users. Reportedly Google not track by person information or specific browser information.
1287098574 This is the time of the previous visit to the server
1287177795 This is the time last visited the server
3 This the number of times the site was been visited


Cookie:            __utmz


__utmz This cookie stores how you got to this site.
102911388  Domain hash
1287093264 Timestamp of when the cookie was last set
1 # of sessions at this time
1 # of different sources visitor has used to get to the site.
utmcsr Last website used to access the current website
=(direct) This means I went direct to the website, “Organic” would be from a google search, “Referring link” may show link coming from Search terms may.
|utmccn=(direct)  Adword campaign words can be found here
|utmcmd=(none) Search terms used to get to site may be in cookie here.


Cookie:            __utmb


__utmb This is the session cookie which is only good for 30 minutes.
102911388 This is a hash of the domain you are coming from
0 Number of pages viewed
10 meaning unknown
1287177795 The last time the page was visited

Remember though all of this can be different if the system deletes the cookies or the user runs an application that cleans the cookies out.  Also, it is all relative and depends on system and user behavior and when and how many times they have visited a particular site.

You can also go to find out more about the description of the cookies

Google Analytics can set four main cookies on the users machine:      

__utma Unique Visitors
__utmb Session Tracking
__utmc Session Tracking
__utmz Traffic Sources

Optional cookies set by Google Analytics:

__utmv Custom Value
__utmx Website Optimizer

Google Analytics creates varying expiration times for its cookies: 

__utma The information on unique user detection expire after 2 years
__utmz The information on tracking expire until 6 months).
__utmv The information on “Custom Tracking” will expire after 2 years
__utmx The information on the “Website Optimizer” will expire after 2 years
  The information about a current visit (visits) will expire after 30 minutes after the last pageview on the domain.

The original code schema written by Urchin was called UTM (Urchin Traffic Monitor) JavaScript code. It was designed to be compatible existing cookie usage and all the UTM cookie names begin with “_utm” to prevent any naming conflicts. 

Tracking the Urchin- from an investigative point of view

Okay so for some additional new stuff on Google analytics when examining the source code of a webpage. What is the Urchin? Google purchased a company called Urchin who had a technology to do traffic analysis. The technology is still referred in the cookies Urchin’s original names.

When examining a live webpage that contains Google analytics code embedded in the website you will come across code that looks similar to this:

<script type=”text/javascript”><!–var gaJsHost = ((”https:” == document.location.protocol) ? “https://ssl.” : “http://www.”);document.write(unescape(”%3Cscript src=’” + gaJsHost + “’ type=’text/javascript’%3E%3C/script%3E”));// –></script><script type=”text/javascript”><!–try {

var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker(”UA-9689708-5″);


} catch(err) {}

// –></script> 

Search the source code for “getTracker” and you will find the following line: var pageTracker = _gat._getTracker(”UA-9689708-5″); which contains the websites assigned Google analytics account number “UA-9689708-5”. So what does this mean and how can it be of value to me when I am investigating a website? Let’s identify what the assigned number means: 

UA Stands for “Urchin Analytics” (the name of the company Google purchased to obtain the technology)
9689708 Google Analytics account number assigned by Google
5 Website profile number

How can I use this Google analytics number in an investigation? First you can go to to run the UA # and identify the company/person assigned the number.

The reponse you will get is something similar to this:

google analytics

Then run the Google Analytics number through


This is a little more of investigative use in that it is showing domains that use the same Google analytics Id, the Internet Protocol addresses assigned to the domains and the DNS servers used by the domains.

Using allows you to identify any webpage where this Google Analytics Id has been embedded in the source code.  This can be of investigative value if the target has used the same Id on more than one webpage they control or monitor. Why would this occur? Google allows the user to monitor data from multiple sites from a single control panel.

So how does Google analytics work?

Google is probably a better place to find this out. You can go to for a complete overview of how it works.

In short Google Analytics java code embedded in the webpage you visit collects information from the following sources when you connect to a webpage:

  • The HTTP request of the visitors browser
  • Browser/system information from the visitor
  • And it sends a cookie to the visiting system

All of this gives the webpage owner the ability to track persons going to their webpage. From an investigative point of view there is a certain amount of exposure due to the browser tracking that occurs and the fact that a cookie is placed on your investigative system. But there is the possibility from examining the page source code to tie the website through the Google Analytics Id to other webpages of interest.

A forensic look at the installed IDrive backup service files

Thursday, August 16th, 2012

I didn’t intend on dissecting files when I started looking at IDrive. My intent was to look at its operation and determine a method of file acquisition as a “Cloud” service. That is still an ongoing project. What I found though is a little disturbing from a user point of view, and fantastic from a forensic point of view. I originally wrote this last year and never got it posted.  When I originally looked at IDrive I found some interesting information. I thought after a year they would have changed their methods of obscuring their client information on the local machine. Alas, no….Here is what I found.

IDrive Background

From their corporate information page IDrive identifies them as a “service” of Pro Softnet Corporation based in Calabasas, California. Pro Softnet has been around since 1995 providing Internet-based solutions. They have several other products including IBackup and RemotePC.

Disturbing Findings or not so disturbing for the Forensic examiner

I downloaded the “Free” version of IDrive’s software.  I wanted to test it and potentially include it in our training as a discussion item on cloud investigation issues. IDrive is unique among the “Online Backup” providers in that they offer “Free” storage of up to 5 GB of data. The other companies in this space seem to only offer a free trial period of their product. IDrive was unique enough that I thought I needed to try it.

This short blog entry is not a review of the entire installation of the software. I did not look in to the registry or examine ever file. I did however find a few things that are worth mentioning for the forensic examiner. I quickly and easily installed their software and easily uploaded some test data into their storage.  I then started to poke around on my machine to identify where IDrive put files.  I did not have to go far. IDrive’s files are found on the local system hard drive under the IDrive folder in the “Program Files” folder.

In the main IDrive folder is the 128 bit “rc4.key” encrypted key file I am sure that is used by the system to communicate with the IDrive server. RC4 is almost 25 years old as an encryption scheme. It however is still in common use today.  I did not examine further its implementation in the communication scheme of the product or try to crack it..

IDrive Temp Folder

In the IDrive “Temp” folder there were two folders with files similarly named. The file “DLLOutput1.txt” contained only an IP address of (and what appears to be a port number of 11663) which belongs to IDrives parent company Pro-Softnet.

The file DLLIntput1.txt similarly contained a small amount of important information. The format was: 

8-16-2012 11-52-21 AM

 We will discuss the username and password translation below.

LDB Folder

In the LDB folder is a file titled “IDriveLDB.IDr”. The file is an SQlite database containing file paths of the data to be backed up.

Log Folder

Under the “Log” folder is another file containing a file named “Realtime Trace.txt”. This file is a log file with connection dates and times.   This file contained the backup up operation to IDrive, which included the IDrive User name, data files names and paths, the start and end time of the backup, the number of files backed up and any excluded files from the backup.

Folder with local computer name

In the folder with the local computers name was found a file titled “Backupfile.txt”. This file contained a list of the files backed up to the IDrive server. In this same folder was another file “BackupSet.txt” that appeared to contain the dates and times of the backups.


In the IDrive user folder there is a file called “IDriveE.ini”. The contents are a little lengthier but it is revealing.  At first glance there is the same IP address identified above, the port and much more information. I looked at the lines in the file and realized that some encryption scheme was used. The question is what was it?  Thinking I would not easily find out what the scheme was that was implemented, I used a program to simply try various cyphers common in obfuscation. Without much effort I revealed my passwords and my user name from the text. The obfuscation used by IDrive was a simple 2 position Cesar Cypher.

Text in File Translation
user 2 position Cesar Cypher and is my login user name
User Password=xxxxxxx 2 position Cesar Cypher and is my login password
gpercuuyqtf=xxxxxxxx 2 position Cesar Cypher and is “encpassword=mypassword”
Enc password=xxxxxx 2 position Cesar Cypher and is my encrypted Idrive password but only the first 6 characters of my password
wugtgocknkf=vqffBxgtguqhvyctg0eqo useremailid;

(Real password has been removed for my security….)

These were not the only lines that used the 2 position Cesar Cypher. In going through the entire file, the lines not in plaintext all used this same cypher to encode their data.


In reviewing a file named “SerTraceFile.txt” I found a log file with more interesting information about the service and what it collects about my system. The file contained many pieces of information about the IDrive service and the local machine including the local PC name and the NIC card’s MAC address.


WOW….So in looking at IDrive, the “Encrypted” backup service, I found from a forensic point of view, some substantially important failings on the local machine. Well not failings from an investigative point of view, this is actually some great information.  I made no attempt at the writing of this blog entry to use the file information to login from a separate machine. Until Prosoft changes the IDrive local machine files Digital Forensic examiners will have access to some useful information from the IDrive files.

Post script

I am sure this will be changed in a follow-on version by Pro-Soft (at least I hope so), but for the record what I found is limited to my examination of these specific versions on a Windows 7 machine. The IDrive versions I used in this testing were 3.3.4 and3.4.1.

So you thought Tor was bad enough. Check out Tor’s Hidden Web Services.

Monday, July 25th, 2011

Recently and article appeared at NPR titled “Senators Target Internet Narcotics Trafficking Website Silk Road”. I only bothered to hit the link because I saw it mentioned on the website The short article complained of drugs blatantly sold on the Internet and something needed to be done about it and Congress is going to solve that one for us. Although selling drugs on the Internet is nothing new, the place on the Internet “openly” selling drugs was on the Tor network through the use of Tor’s “Hidden Services” function.  The “Silk Road” is an online market open for the sale of goods and named after the ancient road used to bring goods from the orient to the west.

For the power user of the Tor network Hidden Services is probably nothing new. For the average online investigator though you may have heard of Tor and may have even tried to use it (especially of you read my last article on using Tor in your investigations). But were you aware that webpages can be hidden within the Tor network? Have you ever seen a .onion domain name? if you haven’t then read on.

Hidden services were introduced to the Tor network in 2004. Tor’s Hidden Services are run on a Tor client using special server software. This “Hidden Service” uses a pseudo top-level-domain of “.onion”. Using this domain, the Tor network routes traffic through its network without the use of IP addresses.

To get to these hidden services you must be using the Tor Network and have your browser enable to use Tor.  How do you find sites using the hidden services? Start at the core…


Welcome to .onion Welcome to .onion

Core.onion according to its hidden services site has been in the network since 2007.

Once in the Core.onion you find a simple directory to start exploring Hidden Services on the Tor network.

TorDir TorDir

TorDir is a directory of Hidden Services. It gives you access to a variety of sites that offer instant messaging services, email, items for sale, social media type sites and marketplaces.

Black Market Black Market


In the markets a variety of things are for sale, most look to be illegal though. File sharing also looks to be popular and can be found in several .onion sites.

File Sharing File Sharing


To make purchases bitcoin seems to be the most popular virtual currency and is regularly mentioned throughout the .onion sites.

Bitcoin Bitcoin


Another good location to start finding out about what Tor’s Hidden Services have to offer is a wiki located at:



Also, if you are an IRC fan Tor hidden services can be used there also. The Freenode website gives the instructions on how to access Freenode IRC servers on Tor’s Hidden Services.

If you are interested in learning more about Tor’s Hidden Services here are a few sites that can get you on your way:


Not to make it any worse but if you have not heard Ip2 (another anonymizing network that is becoming increasingly popular) also has its own “eeepsites” similar to the Hidden Services offered in Tor that a user can post content to like a website.

Hidden Services are going to increasingly become a location that will be misused by many. It will also become a place on the Internet that investigators will need to become increasingly familiar with if they are to further their online investigations.

Tor and its use during online investigations

Monday, July 18th, 2011

When investigating crimes on the Internet the investigator needs to consider how much information that he presents to servers and webpages that he may be investigating.  Hiding oneself on the Internet used to be the purview of hackers. However, technology changes and so has the ability to easily implement the same techniques hackers use to hide themselves during your investigations. There are many techniques for eluding identification on the Internet. Proxies have been used for years for this purpose. Proxies act as just that a “Proxy” or a go between. It’s a computer that acts on your behalf and forwards to the server you are looking at any requests you make. The server you are investigating only sees the “Proxy”.

Another significant tool in the “I need to hide on the Internet” world is the venerable tool “Tor”. Tor (The Onion Router) was developed from a concept originally written about by the U.S. Navy. According to the Tor website,  “Tor protects you by bouncing your communications around a distributed network of relays run by volunteers all around the world: it prevents somebody watching your Internet connection from learning what sites you visit, and it prevents the sites you visit from learning your physical location.”

Using Tor during online investigations is much easier now that it has been in the past. This is due to the increase in most users Internet bandwidth, the constant upgrading and improving of the Tor software and it easy integration into the popular browsers. So how does the investigator implement Tor during his investigations? Well the simplest method is to use the Tor network to hide browsing activity. If you are investigating a webpage or website we know that there is certain information that our browser tells that server or website about who we are and potentially where we are. Our browsers can reveal our IP addresses what kind of browser we are using and its version. We can use Tor to prevent a suspect webpage from identifying us.

Let’s take a look at how to install and implement Tor so we can us it during our investigations. Installation for Tor is pretty starting forward now. Go to the Tor project website and download the current “Vidalia” (like the onion) Windows installer. Click on the executable file and the project installs. The trick to using Tor is setting the proxy setting in your browser to use the Tor network. Your browser normally makes a call out through your Internet Service to servers on the Internet. These servers easily identify who you are by your Internet Protocol (IP) address so they can communicate back with you.  This exposure of your IP address is what can tell the bad guy who you are and possible who where you are in the world. The Tor network in its simplest description strips that information out and only provides the end user with an IP address belonging to the Tor network and not you. Thus you have effectively hidden from the end website you are visiting or target user that you may be communicating with through the Internet (Please note this is an over simplification of the process and exact details of how the Tor network works can be found on the project website).

So once Tor is installed your next actions are to set up your browser to use the Tor network as its proxy (proxy being a server acting as your entry point to the Internet and in this hiding your real IP address). Using Windows Internet Explorer version 8 go to Tools|Internet Options|

Changing Internet Explorer Settings

Changing Settings in Internet Explorer

 The select “Connections” and click on “LAN Settings”.

Image 2 -Tor IE LAN settings

IE LAN Settings


IE LAN Settings Address and Port IE LAN Settings Address and Port

In the Local Area Network (LAN) Settings box you need to click on the box “Use a Proxy server for your LAN” in the address box add and add in the Port box 8118. Click OK twice to exit and you are now able to use the Tor network.  You will continue to use the Tor network as your proxy until you uncheck the “Proxy server” box. This will then return you to your normal web access.

The Tor Project has a page you can go to that will verify that you are using the Tor Network or you can go to one of the websites on the Internet that grabs your IP address like

In the Windows taskbar a little Onion symbol when opened will show you the “Vidalia” Control Panel. The control panel lets you know you are connected to the Tor network  and can change the IP address you are coming from by clicking on the “Use new identify” button.

Tor Control Panel

Control Panel

Once connected click on the setting button in the control panel. For our investigative purposes click on “Run as client only”.  This will ensure that other users of the network are not using your system as a relay server on the network (Tor data would actually be passing through your computer). 

Tor Settings Tor Settings

To see the other computers, and their description, on the Tor system click on the “View the Network” button.

We are no ready to go online and start our investigation without being identified.

Things to note here, the online application being used by the tor network in this configuration is Windows Internet Explorer. If you send an email to the target from your normal email client on your desktop, use another browser, instant messaging, or use P2P software you will potentially expose who you really are by your IP address. To use any other applications through the Tor network you need to set them up to use the Tor proxy settings.

Other things to consider in your Browser set up that need to be turned off.  Turn off running scripts, ActiveX and cookies. Also block pop-ups. But “I can’t access all the good content on the Internet”. Correct you can’t but then the end user can’t identify you either. Each of these features enhance our web surfing experience, but they also require code be downloaded through your browser and run on your machine. This can allow for the code to default to a port it use that is not being redirected to the Tor network, thereby exposing who you are. This may not be important in all the cases you work, but be aware of it. If you lock down your browser and don’t get the content you want you can always relax the controls and go back and look at the site, but at least you are aware then of the risks and make that decision based on the investigation.

Using WebCase with Tor requires just installing Tor as described above. WebCase collects web –based evidence through Internet Explorer even when piped through the Tor Proxy. The collection times will be extended because of the way Tor functions and has nothing to do with WebCase.

Fingerprinting a Web server from an investigative point of view

Wednesday, May 19th, 2010

Fingerprinting web servers is not a startling new revelation in web development. For several years now technology to identify web servers has been used by black and white hackers to identify weaknesses in web servers. Companies have used these “fingerprinting” techniques to identify incoming information about IP addresses and the servers they come from to prevent Identity Theft and credit card fraud. These techniques are also commonly used by penetration testers to help identify a system prior to attempting to review the system. Hackers have used the techniques to ascertain weakness in a web servers implementation to attack the system.

Most often the technique of “fingerprinting” is implemented as a server side technique to view the incoming traffic. The implementation of client side application is what would be of interest to the online investigator. There have been numerous discussions about its use and technical development but not from the law enforcement investigative capacity. Identify the information about a server can be advantageous for an investigation being conducted on the internet. “Fingerprinting” the web server can identifying certain aspect about the server, including the operating system and version.  This identification can potentially provide law enforcement investigators with additional useful information as to the nature and origin of the website.

Using browser responses to identify what the system is running can aid the investigators preliminary examination of a website. The initial review of the website can determine the website’s ownership and validity. A commonly used tool that has been a hacking/penetration tester staple for years is Nmap. Nmap is short for Network Mapper, an open source utility for exploring networks and doing security audits. Other tools have been developed specifically for the purpose of identifying web servers through the server’s response to a browsers request. Some of those tools include hmap, Nikto, httprint and XProbe.

More in depth identification of web server “fingerprinting” needs to be accomplished to identify its complete benefit as an investigative tool. Based on its current use in the field, as a reliable penetration tester’s tool, the prospect appears great that this methodology could be beneficial to law enforcement.

Six Online Tools for Tracing IP Addresses

Tuesday, March 9th, 2010

Tracing IP addresses is a fundamental skill for online investigations. Several resources are available on the Internet to assist in this process. Several online resources for doing your basic IP identification include:

ARIN – American Registry of Internet Numbers
ARIN is a Regional Internet Registry (RIR) that provides services related to the technical coordination and management of Internet number resources in its respective service region. The ARIN service region includes Canada, many Caribbean and North Atlantic islands, and the United States.

Use the “Search Whois” function at  to obtain IP registration information.

Sam Spade
Sam Spade has been in use as a tool for obtaining domain registration information for years. It has a simple Google like interface where you enter an IP address or a domain name.
DNS Stuff
This is another website that has been around for a number of years. This website offers both free and pay for option for assisting in the identification IP addresses and other online information.
Another website with a simple user interface to assist in IP tracing.
Central Ops is another website that assists with your IP tracing. One of its features “Domain Dossier” does multiple lookups on an IP address or domain.
Internet Investigators Toolbar
All of these websites are easily accessible from our free to the online investigations community Internet Investigators toolbar which can be found on our website at

Six Internet Tools for Researching Someone

Saturday, February 13th, 2010

Finding information about someone online can be as simple as searching them in Google. For some more detailed information about people several resources are available on the Internet for identifying people.  Each website returns a limited amount of information on whom you are researching and most are a front end for a pay for service which for a small amount you can get a complete background on the individual. However, searching several of the services, which return different information, you can quickly put together a significant amount of information on your target.

Search Bug

Zabba Search

The Ultimates

Skip Ease


Zoom Info


Internet Investigators Toolbar

All of these websites are easily accessible from our free, to the online investigations community, Internet Investigators toolbar which can be found on our website at

Tracing IP Addresses: Some Background

Wednesday, October 14th, 2009
Tools like traceroute show the many data packet paths across the Internet.

Tools like traceroute show the many data packet paths across the Internet.

Everyone uses the Internet, says Gary Kessler, instructor of upcoming “Tracing IP Addresses” webinar—but few people understand how it actually works. And while investigators don’t need to know how the telephone system works to get a warrant for phone records or even wiretapping, the Internet is far more complex–but far more accessible to the investigator.

“Computer forensics starts ‘under the hood’,” he explains. The investigator must know about file allocation tables, storage space on a hard drive or other digital device, and so forth, before being able to use the appropriate tool to recover evidence.

And because the Internet figures into so many forensic examinations—those involving child pornography, cyber bullying and harassment, etc.—it is one of the working parts “under the hood.” “No longer are there standalone computers,” says Kessler, “so conducting online investigations involves the application of some forensic principles.”

Tying digital evidence to individuals

These include both legal and technical aspects. “Investigators need to be able to understand the networking clues left on the computer,” says Kessler, “such as where to look, and how the clues can mislead. For example, the email header doesn’t prove who sent the email, but it can indicate where the email came from.”

In fact, he adds, everything in digital forensics is about finding patterns of behavior. “When taken together, those patterns can lead a reasonable person to what a suspect did,” says Kessler. “Digital forensics provides exculpatory or incriminating information which might take an investigation in a direction it may not otherwise have gone.”

In the case of IP tracing, this can even include geolocation. “An IP address can provide a general location from where an individual accessed email, for example,” says Kessler. “In one homicide investigation, this was key when the suspect denied an email account was his. Not only was the account established as his, but the IP addresses also showed the account being accessed from locations which coincided with his business trip calendar.”

Seeing evidence from every angle

Kessler says there are few misunderstandings about IP address tracing, but that investigators don’t always correctly interpret the evidence. “As an example, a traceroute showing data packets going from Point A to Point B will show a different set of addresses than the packets going back from Point B to Point A,” he explains, “which could be interpreted as a completely different route. The investigator has to know how to interpret the information, which is simply the same route being reported in a different way.”

The takeaways from Kessler’s webinar: how IP addresses relate back to online activities, along with tools that show how addresses relate to Web domains, how the domains relate to individuals, and how IP addresses relate to geographical locations.

In addition, Kessler will cover how criminals use the same tools. “An investigator uses the tools in a criminal case, but a hacker uses them to discover vulnerabilities,” he explains. So in all, while IP address tracing may seem trivial, it is important in any case with a networking component.

Learn more: register for the Tracing IP Addresses webinar today!

Christa M. Miller is Vere Software’s marketing/public relations consultant. She specializes in law enforcement and public safety and can be reached at christa at christammiller dot com.

Image: curiouslee via Flickr