Validation of Undercover Communications with Defendants

People v. Richardson (2007) , [not published] Previously published at: 151 Cal.App.4th 790.

That defendant, unbeknownst to him, was communicating with an adult posing as a minor is immaterial since factual impossibility is not a defense.

U.S. v. Han (H.D. N.Y. 1999) 66 F.Supp.2d.

Whether the defendant was unable to complete the crime of 2423(b) because the victim was fictitious is irrelevant in addressing guilt.

U.S. v. Crow (5th Cir. 1999) 164 F.3d 229.

Motion to quash denied where individual defendant attempted to exploit [a ยง 2251(a) charge] was an undercover detective.